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LA P.N.L (PROGRAMMATION NEURO LINGUISTIQUE)

  • 29 Août, 2016
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La programmation neuro-linguistique (PNL) est un ensemble de techniques de communication et de transformation de soi qui s’intéresse à nos réactions plutôt qu’aux origines de nos comportements. Elle privilégie le comment au pourquoi, propose une grille d’observation pour améliorer la perception que nous avons de nous-mêmes et des autres. Elle permet également de se fixer des objectifs et de les réaliser. C’est une boîte à outils, dont la clé réside dans le langage et l’utilisation que chacun de nous fait de ses cinq sens (Visuel, Auditif, Kinesthésique, Olfactif, Gustatif) et de son corps.

 

Son but : permettre de programmer et reproduire ses propres modèles de réussite.

 

La PNL a été mise au point dans les années 70 par John Grinder, professeur de linguistique, et Richard Bandler, mathématicien et psychothérapeute. Les deux hommes avaient décidé d’étudier les excellents résultats obtenus par certains professionnels de la psychothérapie et de la communication, parmi lesquels Fritz Perls, le fondateur de la gestalt-thérapie, et Milton Erickson, le père de la nouvelle hypnose.

 

Chacun d’entre nous communiquons à notre manière car notre manière de percevoir le monde est différente selon notre expérience de vie et notre culture, nos valeurs et nos croyances.

 

Nous possédons tous les sens Visuel, Auditif, Kinesthésique, le sens du toucher, Olfactif, Gustatif, mais l’un des trois premiers sens est mentalement plus développé.

 

En fait, ce sont des styles de communication dans lesquelles les personnes sont plus à l’aise pour échanger, discuter et dialoguer.

 

Comment reconnaît-on si une personne est Visuelle, Auditive ou Kinesthésique ? Par les types de mots qu’elle utilise, par les mouvements de ses yeux quand elle parle, par sa gestuelle.

 

– Les personnes à dominantes Visuelles :

 

Elles vivent le monde à travers leurs yeux. Elles sont attirées par les images, les vues, les couleurs, la luminosité, le mouvement. Elles sont sensibles à leur image et à celle des autres, aux tenues vestimentaires, aux décors. Elles recherchent tous les loisirs à support visuel : le cinéma, la télévision, la photographie, le théâtre si les décors et les comédiens sont nombreux, les sports où la notion d’espace est primordiale.

 

Ce sont des personnes dont le langage est très imagé, avec beaucoup de détails concernant les couleurs et les formes et de nombreuses métaphores visuelles pour illustrer ses propos.

 

– Les personnes à dominantes Auditives :

 

Elles vivent le monde à travers leurs oreilles. Elles ont tendances à prêter une grande importance au vocabulaire employé. C’est leur cadre de référence et elles sont attentives à la sonorité, à la qualité des mots utilisés, ce sont des personnes qui prennent le temps de choisir les mots les plus « précis et les plus élégants ». Leur voix est souvent mélodieuse. Souvent elles aiment prendre le temps de la réflexion et apprécient les musées, l’histoire, la littérature et les concerts. Elles tiennent souvent avec elles-mêmes un dialogue intérieur.

 

– Les personnes à dominantes Kinesthésiques :

 

Elles vivent le monde au travers de « leur sentiments ». Leurs émotions passent avant leur pensée. Affectives, toujours à l’écoute des autres, elles vivent par et pour les autres.

 

Bon public, elles sont attirées par tous loisirs, à la condition que ceux-ci dégagent des émotions. Elles se laissent facilement submerger par leurs émotions lors de la vision d’un film triste ou émouvant. Adorant les grandes histoires sentimentales littéraires, elles aiment les sports de contact ou de sensation (judo, équitation,…), les activités de toucher (poterie, ..).

 

Elles illustrent leur propos par des descriptifs concrets. Face au public, alors que l’émotion les troublent, elles ont tendance pour se rassurer à toucher quelque chose, la table, un stylo, une feuille.

 

Dans la vie professionnelle, ce sont des personnes qui par nature se passionnent pour les autres, en les aidant (domaine médical, associations caritatives,..) ou en les rapprochant (métier de la communication). Elles sentent les problèmes, savent écarter les obstacles ou démêler les conflits.

 

– Comment décoder par le mouvement des yeux :

 

Il est intéressant d’observer le mouvement des yeux pour savoir le mode le plus utilisé. Les mouvements des yeux sont d’autres indices pour décoder la personne lorsque nous sommes en sa présence.

 

En Visuel, les yeux vont vers le haut. En Auditif, les yeux bougent dans le milieu et en Kinesthésique, les yeux vont vers le bas (vers la droite de la personne).

 

 

Bibliographie :

 

L’essentiel de la PNL – éditions Jouvence

La PNL au quotidien – éditions Jouvence

Derrière la magie – Josiane de St Paul et Alain Cayrol

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